SAND CDBMS SQL Reference Guide


This manual is a language reference for the SAND CDBMS implementation of Structured Query Language (SQL), the relational database language used to create, manage, and manipulate information in a SAND database. The manual provides detailed functional and syntactical information on all the SQL statements supported by SAND CDBMS. SAND CDBMS SQL statements may be executed interactively using the SAND CDBMS Interactive SQL utility (nisqlm) or other front-ends.

SAND CDBMS SQL is a subset of the ISO/ANSI SQL92 specification.


SQL Command Categories

The standard SQL statements supported by SAND CDBMS are divided into three functional command categories:

In SAND CDBMS, Data Manipulation and Data Definition statements can be executed within the same transaction.


SQL Statement Syntax

Interpreting Syntax Diagrams

The following conventions are used in the syntax diagrams:


Required Syntax Elements

Required elements such as invocation commands and required arguments appear on the main path of the syntax diagram. A vertical bar signals the end of the syntax diagram, whereas an arrow signals continuation.


Optional Syntax Elements

Optional elements appear below the main path of the syntax diagram.

If there are multiple choices for a required element, one of the elements will be displayed on the main path of the diagram.


Repetitive Constructs

An arrow appears below a syntax element (or list of optional elements) when more than one element may be entered or when a particular element may be repeated. If the elements in the list must be separated by commas, a comma is shown in the syntax box.


Expanded Elements

Elements that are expanded in a subsequent syntax diagram are labeled with a word or phrase between angle brackets. The partial diagram that expands the element is labeled in the top left corner with the same word or phrase found between angle brackets in the preceding diagram.


Usage Examples

Usage examples at the end of each statement description are shown in SAND CDBMS Interactive SQL. In SAND CDBMS Interactive SQL, statements must be terminated with a semicolon ( ; ).